In the evolving digital world, cryptography or cryptology is the technology application to ensure secure communications in the presence of third parties called adversaries. In its earlier form, cryptography was known as data encryption.
It helps you construct and analyze protocols that prevent third parties or the public from reading private messages delivered over digital networks.
In order to achieve information security, cryptography integrates components such as data confidentiality, data integrity, authentication, and non-repudiation. Cryptography models are designed by using advanced mathematics, computer science, electrical engineering, communication science, and physics.
Applications of cryptography include electronic commerce, chip-based payment cards, digital currencies, computer passwords, and military communications.
The adoption of cryptographic technology has raised many legal issues in the information-driven world. In despotic regimes, cryptography is used as a secret punitive tool for espionage and sedition against the dissenters.
In some jurisdictions, the use of cryptography is legal and laws permit investigators to compel the disclosure of encryption keys for documents relevant to an investigation. Cryptography plays a major role in digital rights management and copyright infringement of digital media.